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Congenital rubella syndrome

Rubella | Photos | CDC

Congenital rubella syndrome - Wikipedi

  1. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester. If infection occurs 0-28 days before conception, the infant has a 43% risk of being affected
  2. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an illness in infants that results from maternal infection with rubella virus during pregnancy. When rubella infection occurs during early pregnancy, serious consequences-such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and a constellation of severe birth defects in infants-can result
  3. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an important cause of severe birth defects. When a woman is infected with the rubella virus early in pregnancy, she has a 90% chance of passing the virus on to her fetus. This can cause the death of the fetus, or it may cause CRS
  4. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is the major complication associated with rubella infections. Measles infection of the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with encephalitis, hearing loss, and blindness in the newborn infant, and, later, intellectual disabilities

Congenital rubella refers to the group of birth defects that occur in an infant whose mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles (rubella) during pregnancy. Congenital rubella occurs when the rubella virus in the mother affects the developing baby in the first 3 months of pregnancy. After the fourth month, if the mother has a. Congenital rubella is the infection of a foetus with rubella virus following the infection of the mother during pregnancy. 'Congenital' indicates that the foetus also becomes infected during pregnancy Q: How is congenital rubella syndrome diagnosed? A: If your child is born with symptoms consistent with congenital rubella syndrome, a simple blood test can test for the presence of the virus in the bloodstream. Q: What symptoms might my baby have? A: Babies born with congenital rubella syndrome may have some or all of the following symptoms: Heart problems; Eye problems, including cataracts and glaucoma; Intellectual disabilities; Growth retardation; Low birth weight; Developmental delays.

Surveillance Manual Congenital Rubella Syndrome VPDs

  1. Congenital rubella syndrome is a spectrum of congenital abnormalities that result from primary maternal infection with the rubella virus. It falls under the TORCH group of infections. It is important to note that reinfection/reactivation of maternal infection has a significantly lower risk of fetal anomalies than compared to primary infection
  2. Congenital rubella syndrome, or CRS, is a disorder that affects a baby in the womb when the mother is infected with the rubella virus. Possible signs and symptoms of CRS include deafness and heart and eye defects. The baby's mental and physical development also may be abnormal, and diseases such as diabetes may develop later in life
  3. Rubella can cause congenital rubella syndrome in the newborn, this being the most severe sequela of rubella. The syndrome (CRS) follows intrauterine infection by the rubella virus and comprises cardiac, cerebral, ophthalmic and auditory defects. It may also cause prematurity, low birth weight, and neonatal thrombocytopenia, anemia and hepatitis
  4. Rubella is the leading cause of preventable birth defects, caused by a viral infection during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy. A pregnant woman infected with rubella in early pregnancy has up to a 90 per cent chance of giving birth to a baby with Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Birth defects of CRS include: Heart defects; Hearing impairment; Cataract

WHO Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS

  1. congenital rubella syndrome (rubella syndrome) transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection (which may or may not be clinically apparent), resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant
  2. Congenital rubella is a syndrome that occurs when a fetus has been infected with the rubella virus while in the uterus. It is primarily characterized by abnormalities of the heart and nervous system, the eyes and the ears
  3. Congenital rubella syndrome 1. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella (GERMAN MEASLES), usually in the first trimester. It was discovered in 1941 by Australian ophthalmologist Norman McAlister Gregg. The molecular basis for the causation of congenital rubella syndrome are not yet completely clear, but in vitro studies.
  4. They have congenital rubella syndrome, which they acquired during an outbreak of the rubella virus, or German measles. The epidemic swept across America from late 1963 into 1965, infecting an.
  5. The virus can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta and is capable of causing serious congenital defects, abortions, and stillbirths. Fortunately, because of the successful immunization..

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) was initially identified in 1941 by Norman Gregg, an Australian ophthalmologist who observed an unusual form of congenital cataracts in babies of mothers who had had rubella during pregnancy. 131 It occurs following maternal rubella infection during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy, and only rarely when infection is acquired later in gestation Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is one of the most devastating congenital infections and yet the only one which is vaccine preventable and is a public health challenge for clinicians and policymakers across the developing world including India

Congenital Rubella Syndrome - an overview ScienceDirect

Congenital rubella Genetic and Rare Diseases Information

Disease factsheet about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS

Rubella virus - Wikipedia

In the United States alone, approximately 20,000 children were born during this epidemic with two or more of these symptoms. This constellation of symptoms is known as congenital rubella syndrome, or CRS. HKNC is one of a handful of agencies worldwide that collects and disseminates information about this low incidence population Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) Pathophysiology. Authors' proposed pathogenesis of the Congenital Rubella Syndrome. | Mawson, A. R., & Croft, A. M. Clinical features. Rubella is a viral disease that can affect susceptible persons of any age. If playback doesn't... Diagnosis. Management..

● Congenital rubella infection (CRI) -CRI is the broader term, encompassing the full spectrum of outcomes from... ● Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) -CRS is a subcategory of CRI that refers to variable constellations of birth defects.. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is a major complication of rubella infection. Rubella infection is caused by a togavirus of the genus rubivirus and it is usually a mild viral infection. The disease is characterized by a transient, mild maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis, coryza (running nose), enlarged cervical lymph nodes, low-grade fever and nausea Congenital Rubella Syndrome Funktionshinder, Dövblindhet 26 mar 2012 The rubella virus affects the central nervous system in several ways and individuals with CRS may exhibit neurological and neuropsychological problems during different stages of their life. Many of the behavioural. About Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Rubella is generally a mild disease but can have serious consequences for pregnant women and their children. If infected with rubella in the first trimester of pregnancy, women have a very high risk of giving birth to a child with Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Rubella infection in pregnant women may cause fetal death or congenital defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in newborns. The effect of rubella infection varies depending on time of gestational rubella infection

Congenital Rubella Syndrome: A Case Report on Changes in

CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME 1. CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME (CRS) DR.VAMSHIKRISHNA DUSSA, MD (HOMOEO). J.S.P.S GOVT HOMOEO MEDICAL COLLEGE,... 2. INTRODUCTION ▪ Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has... 3. INCIDENCE ▪ Congenital rubella occurs. Congenital rubella syndrome: supportive care (based on individual disease manifestations) and surveillance (including monitoring for late-term complications) Prevention [23] Immunization of seronegative women bef ore pregnancy; Nationally notifiable condition: Suspected congenital rubella syndrome must be reported to the local or state health department

A baby born affected by rubella is said to have congenital rubella syndrome. Many will have hearing loss, cataracts, other eye conditions, damage to the brain and heart problems that will affect them throughout their life. Some may also have additional needs, such as autism and learning disabilities Maternal infections during the first trimester often cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and, among livebirths, congenital rubella syndrome. We aimed to evaluate possible supplemental immunisation activities (SIAs) to accelerate elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester. If infection occurs 0-28 days before conception, the infant has a 43% chance of being affected. If the infection occurs 0-12 weeks after conception, the chance increases to 51%

Congenital Rubella Symptoms & Causes Boston Children's

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an illness in an infant caused by rubella virus infection in the mother during pregnancy. When pregnant women are infected with rubella virus, their babies also are exposed, which may result in serious complications Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in children whose mothers contract the rubella virus, sometimes called German measles, during pregnancy. Depending on the gestational period when the mother contracts rubella, an infant born with CRS may be unaffected by the virus or it may have severe developmental defects Svensk översättning av 'congenital rubella syndrome' - engelskt-svenskt lexikon med många fler översättningar från engelska till svenska gratis online Congenital rubella syndrome is caused by a virus known as a rubivirus. When adults and children contract the disease, it is known as rubella, or German measles. If a pregnant woman contracts rubella during her first trimester, there is a very good chance that she will pass it on to her fetus

Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) [1] By: O'Neil, Erica Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in children whose mothers contract the rubella virus, sometimes called German measles, during pregnancy [2]. Depending on the gestational period when the mother contracts rubella, an infant born with CR Congenital rubella syndrome. Congenital rubella syndrome is a rare fetal malformation syndrome (group of birth defects) with lifelong consequences that occur in an infant whose mother is infected with the virus that causes rubella (German measles) during the first trimester of pregnancy

Rubella, Congenital Syndrome (CRS)2007 Case Definition Clinical Description. Presence of any defect (s) or laboratory data consistent with congenital rubella infection. Clinical Criteria. Cataracts/congenital glaucoma, congenital heart disease (most commonly patent ductus arteriosus or... Laboratory. Rubella is usually a mild, self-limiting viral infection. Its major complication of maternal infection in early pregnancy is congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)

This is the first in a two part series on Kimberly Cowley, a 50+year survivor of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Kim reached out to the Measles & Rubella Initiative to tell her story. A fierce advocate for vaccination, Kim wants others to realize the burden that CRS, an easily vaccine-preventable disease, places on those infected [ eliminating endemic measles and rubella, which will also lead to elimination of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In 2005, in resolution EUR/RC55/R7, the WHO Regional Committee for Europe acknowledged that measles and rubella can be eliminated in th Congenital rubella syndrome: The constellation of abnormalities caused by infection with the rubella (German measles) virus before birth.The syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital malformations (birth defects) and mental retardation.. The individual features of the syndrome include growth retardation, microcephaly (abnormally small head), cataracts, glaucoma, microphthalmia. This report discusses the accomplishments of the rubella vaccination program in Costa Rica and the challenges posed by rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the future

Congenital rubella syndrome refers to the entirety of symptoms shown by a child whose mother contracted rubella during early pregnancy. If such an infection does not lead to miscarriage or still birth , the neonate may show severe congenital malformations Rubella is of greatest danger to the unborn fetus. Up to 90% of infants born to mothers infected in the first trimester will develop the physical anomalies referred to as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). CRS is characterized by any of a number of complications and findings, including blindness, heart defects, deafness, behavioral disorders. Congenital rubella syndrome occurs when a pregnant person contracts the rubella virus, and it passes through the placenta to the unborn child. The rubella virus can move through the fetal.. Congenital rubella syndrome. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Billable/Specific Code Code on Newborn Record. P35.0 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used. congenital rubella syndrome. human disease. Upload media. Wikipedia. Instance of. developmental defect during embryogenesis, infectious disease. Subclass of. congenital transmission

Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Page contents . Overview; More information; Overview. WHO EURO (in combination with the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC)) have a renewed commitment in agreement with EU Member States to measles and rubella elimination and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome in the WHO European Region by 2015 Infectious agent: Rubella virus Description of illness: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an illness that can occur in infants as a result from maternal infection with the rubella virus during pregnancy.When rubella infection occurs during early pregnancy, serious consequences-such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and sever birth defects can result

WHO | Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)

Rubella and CRS Elimination: A Race Worth Winning. AEFI Management Kit. Photo credit: Rania Tohme/CDC More than 100,000 children worldwide are born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) every year to mothers infected with the rubella virus General Discussion. Congenital Varicella Syndrome is an extremely rare disorder in which affected infants have distinctive abnormalities at birth (congenital) due to the mother's infection with chickenpox (maternal varicella zoster) early during pregnancy (i.e., up to 20 weeks gestation) Translation for 'congenital rubella syndrome' in the free English-Swedish dictionary and many other Swedish translations

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases will be classified epidemiologically as internationally imported or U.S.-acquired, according to the source of infection in the mother, using the definitions below, which parallel the classifications for rubella cases Rubella usually is a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in a woman's pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, or an infant born with birth defects (ie, congenital rubella syndrome [CRS]) [1] In countries such as the United States where rubella virus infections are rare, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) may not be recognized in a timely manner. However, the syndrome still appears in. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can be prevented with appropriate vaccination programs. The prevalence rates of rubella and CRS in Iran are unknown; therefore, the risk of exposure in pregnant women is not clear. The prevalence of CRS in the pre-vaccine period can be estimated by evaluating the proportion of children in the population with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella Rubella is of global public health concern; >100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are reported annually worldwide . An immunization program resulted in rubella elimination in the United States during 2004

Surveillance Guidelines for Measles, Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the WHO European Region, Updated December 2012 View/ Open e93035-eng.pdf (‎1.167Mb) Rubella is a systemic virus infection that is usually mild. It can, however, cause severe birth defects known as the congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when infection occurs early in pregnancy. As many as 8%-13% of children with CRS developed autism during the rubella epidemic of the 1960s compared to the background rate of about 1 new case per 5000 children Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is one of the most devastating viral congenital infections caused by rubella virus. Infection of nonimmune pregnant females can result in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth/fetal death, or birth of an infant with CRS. First-trimester infections lead to CRS in up to 90% of liveborn infants We saw a patient with congenital rubella syndrome, which triggered the literature. We wanted to share our experience. If you don't have a high level of suspicion, you could have a high chance of. In a # year survey involving over # pregnant women who received rubella vaccine within # months before or after conception (of whom # received the Wistar RA # strain), none of the newborns had abnormalities compatible with congenital rubella syndrome; Mumps infection during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the rate of spontaneous abortio

Congenital rubella syndrome Radiology Reference Article

congenital rubella syndrome translation in English-Danish dictionary. Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies Infants suspected of having congenital rubella syndrome should have antibody titers and specimens obtained for viral detection. Persistence of rubella-specific IgG in the infant after 6 to 12 months suggests congenital infection. Detection of rubella-specific IgM antibodies generally also indicates rubella infection, but false-positive IgM results can occur

Congenital rubella syndrome. Disease definition An infectious embryofetopathy that may present in an infant as a result of maternal infection early in pregnancy and subsequent fetal infection with rubella virus. The disorder can lead to deafness, cataract, and. Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Description of illness: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an illness that can occur in infants as a result from maternal infection with the rubella virus during pregnancy. When rubella infection occurs during early pregnancy, serious consequences-such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and sever birth defects can result Congenital Rubella Syndrome. A total of 12 infants with laboratory-confirmed CRS were born during 1994-1996. Nine states reported seven indigenously acquired cases, four imported cases, and one case with unknown importation status. The maternal exposures for the four imported cases occurred in Mexico (two cases), Sri Lanka (one), and Dominican. Go Back to The Archives Page. Chapter 12: Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Susan Reef, MD and Victor Coronado, MD. I. Disease description. Rubella is a viral illness caused by a togavirus of the genus Rubivirus.Children usually develop few or no constitutional symptoms, but adults may experience a 1-5 day prodrome of low-grade fever, headache, malaise, mild coryza, and conjunctivitis

This study investigated the features of developmental difficulties combined with sensory defects in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Following a large rubella outbreak in Khanh Hoa. Rubella is a viral illness that causes a mild fever and a skin rash. It is also called German measles, but is not caused by the same virus that causes measles (rubeola) Rubella belongs to the family Togaviridae and is a causative virus of congenital rubella infection (CRI). 1 CRI refers to all outcomes associated with intrauterine rubella infection, including miscarriage, stillbirth, a combination of birth defects, and asymptomatic infection. 2 Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) refers to a CRI that occurs in various congenital defects (eg, deafness, cataract. Rubella in pregnancy is associated with 85% risk of birth defects, especially if the maternal infection occurs in the first trimester. 239,240 Vaccination has substantially reduced cases, but some. Congenital Rubella Syndrome Healthcare Workers United States Immunity Primary Infection. TERMS IN THIS SET (38) T/F After exposure to measles virus, it generally takes 10-12 days for a person to develop symptoms of measles. True. T/F Mumps orchitis (inflammation of testicles) can occur in men infected with mumps. True

All About TORCH Infections « Diary of a Caribbean Med Student

What is Congenital Rubella Syndrome? (with pictures

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in children whose mothers contract the rubella virus, sometimes called German measles, during pregnancy.Depending on the gestational period when the mother contracts rubella, an infant born with CRS may be unaffected by the virus or it may have severe developmental defects There are other organ systems also involved with congenital rubella syndrome. Infants can have some hearing loss, cataracts and glaucoma. It can affect the heart. If you see a combination of the. with congenital rubella syndrome - post device closure of Patent ductus arteriosus, bilateral cataract surgery with moderate branch pulmonary artery stenosis and mental retardation posted for cochlear implant. Key words: Congenital rubella syndrome, pulmonary artery stenosis, difficult airway, cochlear implant, patent ductus arteriosus Rubella is a systemic virus infection that is usually mild. It can, however, cause severe birth defects known as the congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when infection occurs early in pregnancy. As many as 8%-13% of children with CRS developed autism during the rubella epidemic of the 1960s compared to the background rate of about 1 new case per 5000 children

Rubella - Wikipedi

Rubella, a mild, vaccine-preventable disease, can manifest as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), a devastating disease of the fetus. To emphasize the inadequacy of the existing rubella vaccination programme in India, we evaluated epidemiological evidence of rubella virus activity with data available from a tertiary-care centre Introduction. Rubella is usually a mild disease, but infection during the first 3-4 months of pregnancy can result in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and congenital rubella syndrome.1 2 Immunisation programmes to prevent congenital rubella syndrome were introduced in many countries soon after vaccines for rubella and measles, mumps, and rubella became available in 1969 and 1971 respectively.

Fast Facts on Global Measles, Rubella, and Congenital

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester.If infection occurs 0-28 days before conception, the infant has a 43% risk of being affected. If the infection occurs 0-12 weeks after conception, the risk increases to 81% The specific strategies included using a rubella vaccine in routine childhood vaccination programs, aiming vaccination campaigns at men and women of childbearing age, developing integrated measles and rubella surveillance systems, implementing a congenital rubella syndrome surveillance system, and supporting improved laboratory capacity for isolating rubella virus (9,10) Rubella and Neonatal Effects Rubella is an essentially harmless disease that resembles measles, however, it is highly teratogenic to a developing fetus. If a pregnant woman contracts rubella, the fetus is at risk to develop Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) which can result in tissue and organ damage and rubella transmission, and verifying that the Region's elimination objectives have been reached. EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEILLANCE MEASLES - elimination RUBELLA - elimination RUBELLA SYNDROME, CONGENITAL - prevention PROGRAM EVALUATION GUIDELINES EUROPE Address requests about publications of the WHO Regional Office for Europe to: Publication

Healthool German Measles - Pictures, Symptoms, CausesCongenital cataract

Congenital rubella syndrome definition of congenital

Congenital Rubella Syndrome—Case Study In a case report that illustrates the condition [28], a 20-year-old Bangladeshi primigravid woman arrived in the U.K. when 20 weeks pregnant and was seen for prenatal care 2 weeks later CONGENITAL RUBELLA: Baby with congenital rubella syndrome has heart disorder, eye problem, born with many congenital anomalies

Etiology of malocclusion

Rubella, Congenital - NORD (National Organization for Rare

Congenital Rubella Syndrome Definition. Rubella is an infection caused by a virus. If a pregnant woman has it, she can pass it to her baby. This can lead to defects, miscarriage, or stillbirth.These health problems are known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) Congenital rubella syndrome. A pregnant woman can spread the rubella infection to her unborn baby. This can have severe consequences such as miscarriage or birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), especially if the mother contracts the disease during the first trimester (first three months) of her pregnancy Congenital varicella syndrome is an extremely rare disorder that appears to affect male and female newborns in equal numbers. Symptoms and physical characteristics associated with the disorder are apparent at birth. CVS occurs in about 1-7 of 10,000 pregnancies. If CVS develops within the final days before delivery, or within a day or two. Rubella, though a mild, vaccine-preventable disease, can manifest with severe teratogenic effects in the fetus labeled as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) due to primary maternal rubella infection Congenital Rubella Syndrome Case Report Date of Report: hh hh hhhh Month Day Year Date of last Evaluation of Infant: hh hh hhhh Month Day Year l PATIENT INFORMATION Child's Name: Last First Middle Current Address: (County, State and Zip Code) Age Congenital Rubella Syndrome Diagnosed

Congenital rubella syndrome - SlideShar

Congenital Rubella Syndrome: Clinically Compatible Manifestations. Column A. Column B. Cataracts or congenital glaucoma (either one or both count as one) Congenital heart defect. Sensorineural hearing loss. Pigmentary retinopathy. Purpura. Hepatosplenomegaly Congenital rubella syndrome Billable Code. P35.0 is a valid billable ICD-10 diagnosis code for Congenital rubella syndrome . It is found in the 2021 version of the ICD-10 Clinical Modification (CM) and can be used in all HIPAA-covered transactions from Oct 01, 2020 - Sep 30, 2021 . ↓ See below for any exclusions, inclusions or special notations Rubella - Elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas Rubella and CRS are the third and fourth diseases to be eliminated from the Americas, following smallpox in 1971 and polio in 1994. In all four cases, the Americas region was the first in the world to achieve elimination Download Citation | Congenital rubella syndrome | Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is now rarely seen in developed countries owing to the routine administration of live, attenuated rubella virus.

Congenital Rubella Syndrome 1. VACCINATE PERSONS WHO DO NOT HAVE DOCUMENTED PROOF OF IMMUNITY TO RUBELLA. In the United States, children should receive the first dose of MMR vaccine at age 12Œ15 months and the second dose at 4Œ6 years of age. Persons who are born after 1957 an We report a case of congenital rubella syndrome in a child born to a vaccinated New Jersey woman who had not traveled internationally. Although rubella and congenital rubella syndrome have been eliminated from the United States, clinicians should remain vigilant and immediately notify public health authorities when either is suspected The target was selected to align with the World Health Assembly, the Pan American Health Association, the Measles and Rubella Initiative, and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative because as a member, the United States agrees to maintain zero endemic measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), and paralytic polio cases #RubellaIf you like our videos please do not forget to like, comment, subscribe to the channel.Also, share with your friends and family.You may Donate to sup..

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